This beautiful stained-glass window is located at Croxteth Hall in Lancashire, ancestral home of the Lancaster (Sefton)
Molyneux. The window is in the 1874 wing of the hall situated in the Dining Room. The coat of Arms is of the
4th Earl who was responsible for the 1874 additions to the building. The Arms incorporated on the right side of the
quarter contain the arms of the 4th Countess Cecil Emily Joliffe, daughter of Baron Hylton*. According to Burke the
crest for the Sefton Molyneux is "Azure, a cross moline or. Crest: A chapeau gules turned up ermine adorned with a
plume of peacock feathers proper. Supporters: Two lions azure. Motto: Vivere sat vincere. (Translated as either To
conquer is to live enough or To live is conquering enough)." It was probably used by the Molyneux family from about
the time of Edward the first. Burke's "General Armory" lists more than 25 coats of arms pertaining to the names:
Molyneux, Molineux, Molines, Molynes, Mullines, & Mullins. All of them relate to Norman/French families, & most to the
Molyneux, or Molineaux, who left Molineaux-sur-Seine to participate in the Norman invasion of England in 1066 AD.
Molyneux Name Meaning and History
English and Irish (of Norman origin): habitational name from Moulineaux in Seine-Maritime, so named from the plural of
French moulineau, a diminutive of moulin ‘mill’. In some cases this may have been an occupational name.
French: occupational name for a miller, from molineux, a variant of Old French molineur ‘miller’.
Irish: Anglicized form of Mulligan.
Irish (Co. Kerry): Anglicized form of Gaelic Ó Maol an Mhuaidh ‘descendant of Maol an Mhuaidh (follower of the noble)’.
Captain William Molyneux (Molins) appears to have been one of the most distinguished, as well from the Battle Abbey
roll, wherein his name stands 18th in order as from the old Chronicles of the duchy, wherein he is set down and placed as
a most especial and chief man in nearness and singular credit with his royal master. Captain William Molyneux and
his brother Vivian were in the 1st expedition of the Army sent by William the Conqueror.
In the chancel of Sefton Church are two achievements with the arms of the Molyneux and Brudenell; and on the east window
is the following inscription: “Orate pro bono statu—Molineux Militis: Qui istam fiere fecit anno Dom. Millmo CCCCCXLI,”
with three shields of arms beneath. Near the tomb of Richard Molineux, Lord of Bradley, lie two
cross-legged figures of Knights Templars of the Molyneux family.
In this place are deposited the remains of many of the Molyneux family, and several curious and fine monuments
are still remaining to perpetuate the race. Among these are two cross-legged figures in stone, with triangular shields,
which, Mr. Pennant says, are expressive of their profession of Knights Templars. These effigies are drawn in a book in the
Heralds' Office from a fine pedigree sent them by Lord Sefton. Around an altar-tomb of white marble is an inscription in
memory of Sir Richard Molyneux, who died in 1439, and Joan his wife. He was Lord of Bradley, Haydike,Warrington, Newton,
Burton Wode, and Newton-in-the-Dale, distinguished himself in the battle of Agincourt, and received the honour
of knighthood from Henry V.
My notes; pronounced phonetically in English, Falaise would be pronounced as "fah-lay", equal emphasis on syllables
Guilluame would be pronounced as "gwee-yahm", equal emphasis on syllables
Recording the Companions of
William Duke of Normandy
at the Conquest of England (1066 A.D.)
The Falaise Roll is a list of 315 names engraved on the bronze memorial erected in 1931 in the chapel of the castle
of Falaise in Normandy. These individuals were chosen because of the probability of their having fought in the Battle
of Hastings in 1066.
Names applied to the Falaise Roll were compiled from Vital, Wace, the Bayeux Tapestry and the Researches of La Rue
and others. These 400 names are shown as they were written in the time of William the Conqueror. The names, of course,
have altered with time. Guillaume is now more often rendered as William; Hugue is more often rendered as Hugh; Arnoul is
more often rendered now as Arnold; Raoul is more often rendered as Ralph. Be watchful for variations. These names
are also in alphabetical order by their first names.
The French government in 1931 produced the "Falaise Roll" This roll of 315 persons is now preserved on a bronze
plaque at William the Conqueror's chapel in his castle at Falaise, although many were not added in time for the unveiling.
Apparently this list is now held at the Falaise Town Hall, below the castle where William was born.
There are 375 commanders shown below, from a total force of about 5000 men.
As listed on the Falaise Roll in Normandy:
Guillaume de Moulines Sir de Falaise
History of Battle Abbey:
Founded by William the Conqueror on the site of the Battle of Senlae or Hastings (1066), nearly seven miles from the
town of Hastings, in the County of Sussex, England. The building was begun in the following year, but was erected on
such a great scale that it was not finished till the reign of William Rufus. It was designed for one hundred and forty monks,
though there were never more than sixty in residence at one time. The first monks were from the Benedictine Abbey
of Marmoutier in Normandy; the new foundation was dedicated to the Holy Trinity, St. Mary, and St. Martin, and was
consecrated on 11 February, 1094. The king offered there his father's sword and coronation robes, and the abbey was
enriched by many privileges, including the right of sanctuary, of treasure trove, of free warren, and of inquest, and the
inmates and tenants were exempt from all episcopal and secular jurisdiction. It was ruled by a mitred abbot who
afterwards had a seat in Parliament and who had the curious privilege of pardoning any criminal he might meet being led
to execution. The monastic buildings were about a mile in circuit and formed a large quadrangle, the high altar of the
church being on the spot where Harold fell. At the Abbey was kept the famous "Roll of Battle Abbey" which was a list
of all those who accompanied William from Normandy.
In 1070 Pope Alexander II ordered the Normans to do penance for killing so many people during their conquest of
England. So William the Conqueror vowed to build an abbey where the Battle of Hastings had taken place, with the high
altar of its church on the supposed spot where King Harold fell in that battle on Saturday, 14 October 1066. He did start
building it, dedicating it to St. Martin, sometimes known as "the Apostle of the Gauls," though William died before it was
completed. Its church was finished in about 1094 and consecrated during the reign of his son William Rufus. William the
Conqueror had ruled that the Church of St. Martin of Battle was to be exempted from all episcopal jurisdiction, putting it
on the level of Canterbury. It was remodelled in the late 13th century but virtually destroyed during the Dissolution of the
Monasteries under King Henry VIII.
Below is given a list of companions who supposedly accompanied William the Bastard of Falaise, Duke of Normandy,
[later William I of England] at the Battle of Hastings. For their services, each commander was granted lordship of large
areas of English countryside, albeit each being widely separated from the other. To the victors went the spoils.
The list is an aggregate of a number of names from different sources which have become known as the "Battle Abbey
As listed on the Battle Abbey Roll:
(18th name on the Battle Abbey Roll)
Sir Guillaume de Moulins, de Falaise
From "History, genealogical and biographical, of the Molyneux families" by Nellie Zada Rice Molyneux:
LINEAGE OF THE ENGLISH BRANCH, MOLYNEUX
In 1066, among the noble attendants of the Conqueror was William de Molins, a person of noble extraction, as
appears from the roll of Battle Abbey in which list his name stands 18th, in order; and to the said William,
Roger de Poictiers (by consent of the Conqueror) gave the manor of Sefton, Thorndon and Kemdon, in the County
of Lancaster of which Sefton became his chief seat. To him succeeded Vivian, his heir, who bore a cross Moline
for his arms, and was father to Adam de Molines; who married Annota dau. of Benedict Garnet, Lord of Speke
in Lancastershire, and had three sons of which Robert s. and m. Beatrix de Villers, heir to Pagan de ViUers, Lord
of Little Crosby in the Co. of Lancaster, with whom he had the Lordship, and by her had a son Eichard, who m.
Edith, sister to Alenerice de Botiller of Wernington, and was father of Adam de Molins who s. at Sefton, and in
the reign of Henry III, was made Forrester, in the Co. Lane. ; he m. Lettice de Brenley, by whom he had a son
Sir William who m. Margret, dau. to Alan de Thornton, of the Co. Leicester and had Richard his successor, who by
Emma Donne his wife had Sir William, his heir; who m. Isabella Scarsbrick of Scarsbrick. He was made Banneret
in Gascoigne by Edmund Couchback, Earl of Lancaster, second son of King Henry III. and dying in 1289, left Sir
Richard his heir; who by Agatha dau. and heir to Sir Roger Kyralon of Lardbrook, Knt. had six sons and two.......
This name is taken from the plaque in the church at Dives-sur-Mer, Normandy, France, where William the Conqueror and
his knights said mass before setting sail to invade England in 1066. It lists all the knights who took part in the invasion.
This is called the "Dives" list:
Guillaume de Falaise
From: Mulnix Name Origin
The Earls of Sefton used Mulins, Mulinus, Molinex, Molino, Molyneux, Molineux and Molyneaux.--. From Patronymica
Britannica, a dictionary of the family names of the United Kingdom endevoured by Mark Antony Lower, M.A.F.S.A.,
London, John Russell Smith, 36 Soho Square, Lews: G. P. Bacon MD CCC LX October 6, 1860. Molines: The Baronial family
of De Molinex who became eminent under Edward III are slated in the Baronages to have derived their surname from the
town so called in the Bourbonnois, but there may have been an earlier settlement from one of the numerous places in
Normandy called Moulinex or Moulins from the molendina or watermills there existing. Molineux; Molyneux; this family
came from Molineux - sur-Seine, not far from Rouen celebrated for the ruins of an ancient fortress popularly called the
Castle of Robert le Diable, which was destroyed by John Sans-Terre, but rebuilt in 1378 by descent from William de
Molineux, Lord of Sefton, County Lancashire, one of the followers of William the Conqueror.
The Molyneux family is one of the oldest in the former county of Lancashire, in the United Kingdom, claiming descent
from a follower of William the conqueror called Guilliam Desmolines. While the claim to Norman origin is probably justified,
no proven Molyneux ancestor can be traced before Adam de Molyneux in the12th century. It seems likely that the
spelling of the name gradually changed from De Molines to de Molyneux, the 'de' disappearing later.
Some time after 1100, lands at Sefton, Thornton and Little Crosby came into the family's hands, so beginning their
connection with this part of England. Sefton was chosen for the site of their manor house, and the Molyneux remained
Lords of the manor there until the 18th century. Sefton Church was their burial place, and contains many family
monuments and brasses; the manor house was situated southeast of the Church but has long since disappeared.
The Molyneux coat of arms is a gold cross on a blue (azure) ground. The simplicity of this design is a sure indication of its
great antiquity, while the exact shape of the cross - technically a cross moline - is a pun on the old spelling of the name.
The Molyneux wear always important and influential as both soldiers and noblemen, and wear closely involved in most of
the major military conflicts from the time of the crusades until the 16th century. The family's success in battle led to the
acquisition of lands by Royal gift and direct conquest. A genius for strategic marriages to heiresses was the other main
cause of the expansion of the Molyneux estates, which gradually came to embrace an area stretching all the way from
Speke to Altcar, as well as many acres around Leyland.
An iteresting connection is the relationship of the Molyneux family, and the Knights Templar.
In the chancel of Sefton Church are two achievements with the arms of the Molyneux and Brudenell; and on the east
window is the following inscription: “Orate pro bono statu—Molineux Militis: Qui istam fiere fecit anno Dom. Millmo
CCCCCXLI,” with three shields of arms beneath. Near the tomb of Richard Molineux, Lord of Bradley, lie two cross-legged
figures of Knights Templars of the Molyneux family......(This will require further research).
Internet Medieval Sourcebook at: http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/sbook.asp
The Catholic Encyclopedia at: http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/02350c.htm
"The Battle Abbey roll, with some account of the Norman lineages" BY THE DUCHESS OF CLEVELAND
IN THREE VOLUMES. VOL. I. LONDON : JOHN MURRAY, ALBEMARLE STREET. 1889. LONDON :
PRINTED BY WILLIAM CLOWES AND SONS, LIMITED, STAMFORD STREET AND CHARING CROSS.
The Roll of Battle Abbey at: http://baggetthistory.com/battle_abbey.html
"History, genealogical and biographical, of the Molyneux families" by Nellie Zada Rice Molyneux, Syracuse, N.Y.,
C. W. Bardeen, 1904
Molyneux Family website at: http://www.molineux.com/history/history.asp
Dictionary of Vexillology: Appendix VIII Crosses in Heraldry at: http://www.crwflags.com/fotw/flags/vxt!dv-8.html#moline
Mulnix Name Origin at: http://freepages.genealogy.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~mulnix/mulnix1.htm
The Gentleman's magazine library: being a classified collection ..., Volume 18 By A. C. Bickley, Frank Alexander Milne,
Alice Bertha Gomme [1814, Part II., pp. 521, 522.]
A Renaissance History of Heraldry at : http://www.btinternet.com/~paul.j.grant/guillim/s2/gu_s2c7.htm
"Patronymica Britannica, a dictionary of the family names of the United Kingdom" endevoured by Mark Antony Lower,
M.A.F.S.A., London, John Russell Smith, 36 Soho Square, Lews: G. P. Bacon MD CCC LX October 6, 1860
BBC History online at: http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/british/normans/background_01.shtml
The Norman Conquest at: http://normanconquest.co.uk
The Falaise Roll at: http://www.robertsewell.ca/falaise.html
The Dives-sur-Mer list at: http://www.robertsewell.ca/dives.html
The "midi" song playing is "Canon in D" by the German composer Johann Pachelbel (1653-1706). It was written about 1680.
You may have heard it as the theme from the movies "Ordinary People", and "Father of the Bride". It is popular
at weddings, and was played at Princess Diana's funeral. Courtesy of Ray Hutchins' Website on Pachelbel.